Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with persistent azoospermia after hormonal therapy
J Assist Reprod Genet. Mar.
2004 doi: 10.1023/b:jarg.0000027021.66435.02
PURPOSE: We aimed to retrieve testicular sperm to be employed on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles on a male affected of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) that remained azoospermic after long-time hormonal treatment. METHODS: Design. We initially performed hormonal therapy using gonadotropins to achieve spermatogenesis. After several semen analyses, we weighed the possibility of looking for testicular spermatozoa for ICSI. Setting. A private university-affiliated setting. Patient. A 30-years-old man diagnosed 10 years ago to suffer from idiopathic, prepubertal HH. Interventions. Gonadotrophin treatment was initiated with hCG and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Testicular sperm extraction was carried out when repeated spermiograms were negative. Motile testicular spermatozoa were cryopreserved and were subsequently employed for ICSI. Multiple follicular development was stimulated with gonadotropins after a downregulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists in the woman. Main Outcome Measures. Seminal analyses were performed after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment and serum FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were also measured. RESULTS: Seminal analysis showed always azoospermia. Serum FSH was 2.9 mIU/mL, serum LH >1 mIU/mL and serum testosterone 7.9 ng/mL (12 months after treatment). Nine oocytes were collected by ultrasound-guided transvaginal route and eight of them were microinjected with motile, frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa. Four oocytes were fertilized. Three embryos were transferred without pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The case report here presented shows that the currently available assisted reproduction techniques may be of value in patients with HH not responding to conventional hormonal treatments.