PUBLICATIONS

Interpretation of noninvasive prenatal testing results following in vitro fertilization and preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy

Klimczak, A M, Reig, A, Neal, S A, Seli, E, Scott, R T,
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. Nov. 2020 doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100232

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The positive predictive value of noninvasive prenatal testing is approximately 69% in the general population. However, positive predictive value is dependent on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested. Patients who undergo in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy and transfer a euploid embryo are presumably a lower risk population than the general population. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we explored the positive predictive value of noninvasive prenatal testing in women undergoing in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy and subsequent transfer of a euploid embryo. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a retrospective cohort study. All patients who underwent in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy followed by transfer of a single euploid embryo between 2014 and 2019 at a university-affiliated fertility center were contacted. Noninvasive prenatal testing results were reviewed and those with positive noninvasive prenatal testing were identified. Results of any subsequent prenatal or postnatal diagnostic testing were used to classify each positive noninvasive prenatal testing as a true positive or a false positive. The prevalence and positive predictive value of positive noninvasive prenatal testing was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 1139 patients that underwent noninvasive prenatal testing after transfer of a euploid embryo were identified, 8 of which had positive noninvasive prenatal testing screens. Although 6 of these patients had subsequent definitive prenatal diagnostic testing that revealed a euploid karyotype concordant with their preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy results, 1 patient opted out of diagnostic testing and later delivered a normal baby. Of note, 1 patient who had noninvasive prenatal testing positive for Turner syndrome underwent amniocentesis, which confirmed Turner mosaicism (45,X karyotype in 80% of cells). Therefore, the positive predictive value of noninvasive prenatal testing in this patient cohort was 12.5%. CONCLUSION: Clinicians and patients should recognize that patients undergoing transfer of a euploid embryo are at a relatively lower risk for fetal aneuploidy than the general population, and the positive predictive value of noninvasive prenatal testing is lower in this setting.