Calcifediol (25OHD) Deficiency and Its Treatment in Women's Health and Fertility.

Arnanz A, Garcia-Velasco JA, Neyro JL
Nutrients. 2022 Apr 27;14(9):1820. 2022 doi: 10.3390/nu14091820


Currently, there is abundant scientific evidence showing that the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) is a highly complex endocrine system with multiple actions in different regions of the body. The unequivocal presence of vitamin D receptors in different tissues related to fertility, and to specific aspects of women’s health such as pregnancy, undoubtedly implies functions of this steroid hormone in both male and female fertility and establishes relationships with different outcomes of human gestation. In order to review the role of the VDES in human fertility, we evaluated the relationships established between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcifediol) deficiency and in vitro fertilization, as well as aspects related to ovarian reserve and fertility, and commonly diagnosed endocrinopathies such as polycystic ovary disease. Likewise, we briefly reviewed the relationships between calcifediol deficiency and uterine fibroids, as well as the role that treatment may have in improving human fertility. Finally, the best scientific evidence available on the consequences of calcifediol deficiency during pregnancy is reviewed in relation to those aspects that have accumulated the most scientific literature to date, such as the relationship with the weight of the newborn at the time of delivery, the appearance of preeclampsia, and the risk of developing gestational diabetes and its final consequences for the pregnancy. To date, there is no definitive consensus on the necessary dose for treatment of calcifediol deficiency in the therapeutic management of infertility or during pregnancy. Large prospective clinical intervention studies are needed to clarify the benefits associated with this supplementation and the optimal dose to use in each situation. Although most intervention studies to date have been conducted with cholecalciferol, due to its much longer history of use in daily care, the use of calcifediol to alleviate 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency seems safe, even during pregnancy. The unequivocal presence of vitamin D receptors in very different tissues related to human fertility, both male and female, as well as in structures typical of pregnancy, allows us to investigate the crucial role that this steroid hormone has in specific aspects of women’s health, such as pregnancy and the ability to conceive. Well-designed clinical studies are needed to elucidate the necessary dose and the best form of treatment to resolve the very common calcifediol deficiency in women of reproductive age.